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Esmeralda County is a county in the west of U.S. state of Nevada. Its 2016 census population was officially 790 persons. Its county seat is Goldfield.
Esmeralda County is one of the original Nevada counties, created in 1861. Esmeralda is the Spanish word for "emerald". An early Nevada miner, J. M. Corey, named the Esmeralda Mining District. It is believed that Corey named the district after the gypsy dancer, Esmeralda, from Victor Hugo's novel, The Hunchback of Notre Dame.